The Journal of Community Informatics <p><span style="font-style: italic;">The Journal of Community Informatics</span> provides an opportunity for Community Informatics researchers and others to share their work with the larger community. Through the Journal's application of a rigorous peer review process, knowledge and awareness concerning the community use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is being brought to a wider professional audience.&nbsp;In addition, the Journal makes available key documents, “points of view”, notes from the field and other materials that will be of wider interest within the community of those working in Community Informatics.</p> <p>Original funding for the Journal was provided by the Canadian Research Alliance for Community Innovation and Networking (CRACIN), a project funded by the Canadian Social Science and Humanities Research Council.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> University of Waterloo Library en-US The Journal of Community Informatics 1712-4441 A legacy to continue Colin Rhinesmith ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 16 1 2 10.15353/joci.v16i0.3498 Actionable Open Data <p>Open Data are recognised as invaluable resources at the city level for improving local services, community engagement and businesses initiatives, but their use still struggle to have the desired impact. This work addresses the underuse of Open Data by exploring the connection between data and actions in everyday urban activities implemented by local governments, public agencies, businesses, non-profit organisations and research institutions operating in the city. The empirical results of this exploratory study outline a structural misalignment between a) roles of local actors in city activities and their data-related activities, b) provision of Open Data and information needs of local actors, c) expected uses of data in local actions and forms of support to the users provided by current city Open Data portals. The envisioned alternative approach to foster the use of Open Data at the city level rely on identifying the appropriate data to be produced for supporting local actions, instead than focusing on publishing data disconnected from real information needs of organisations working for local communities.</p> Lucia Lupi Alessio Antonini Anna De Liddo Enrico Motta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 16 3 25 10.15353/joci.v16i0.3492 Refugees and social media in a digital society <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><em>The proliferation of social media-based initiatives aimed at asylum seekers and refugees in recent years is evidence of growing interest in the potential of social media for delivering interventions and messages to refugee populations in host countries. However, surprisingly little is currently known about how refugees routinely use and incorporate social media into their everyday lives in host countries, and their motivations for doing so. The aim of the study reported in this paper was to explore how and why young refugees living in Norway use social media in their everyday lives, to identify capabilities associated with this use, and to make connections with well- being. The researchers adopted a qualitative approach, undertaking in-depth interviews with eight young refugees and two key informants involved in running social media sites aimed at refugees. Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach (1987) was used to frame the study and guide the analysis of findings. Findings indicated that participants’ main motivations for using social media were communication, access to information, and learning. Analysis of their reported achievements suggested that social media offered five related capabilities which could have an important role in advancing well-being: effective communication; social connectedness; participation in learning opportunities; access to information; and expression of self. Other findings, such as differences in approach to using social media (‘active’ and ‘passive’ use) are discussed. Although all participants used social media and recognised its importance to their lives, variations in the way they approached and valued it suggest that providers need to consider these factors when using it as a tool to engage refugees.</em></p> </div> </div> </div> Sasha Anderson Marguerite Daniel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 16 26 44 10.15353/joci.v16i0.3473 ICT Framework to Support a Patient-Centric approach in Public Healthcare <p class="RESUMEN">Although Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the healthcare sector are extensively deployed globally, they are not used effectively in developing countries. Many resource poor countries face numerous challenges in implementing the ICT interventions. For instance, many health applications that have been deployed are not user-centric. As a result, such ICT interventions do not benefit many health consumers. The lack of an ICT framework to support patient-centric healthcare services in Malawi renders the e-health and mhealth interventions less sustainable and less cost effective. The aim of the study was therefore to develop an ICT Framework that could support patient-centric healthcare services in the public health sector in Malawi. The comprehensive literature review and semi-structured interviews highlighted many challenges underlying ICT development in Malawi. An ICT framework for patient-centric healthcare services is therefore proposed to ensure that eHealth and mobile health interventions are more sustainable and cost effective. The framework was validated by five experts selected from different areas of expertise including mhealth application developers, ICT policy makers and public health practitioners. Results show that the framework is relevant, useful and applicable within the setting of Malawi. The framework can also be implemented in various countries with similar settings.</p> Richard Pankomera Darelle van Greunen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 16 45 76 10.15353/joci.v16i0.3494 Bridging the Digital Divide in a Remote Elementary School <p>This case study is a teacher’s reflection of invisible work when I initiated an instructional technology project that aimed to close digital inequality in a remote elementary school in Taiwan. 13 One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) XO laptops were deployed to 2<sup>nd</sup> and 5<sup>th</sup> grade children and I taught their science classes during June 2011 to January 2012. My field reflections revealed that invisible work was necessary in order to sustain, protect, and expand students’ opportunity to use their XO laptops in the school. In conclusion, public awareness about teachers’ invisible work is critical and should be studied, reported, and recognized by the field of educational research.</p> Kenzen Chen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 16 77 99 10.15353/joci.v16i0.3496 An analysis of the policies of Information and Communication Technologies for Agriculture in Mali <p>To harness the potential of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), developing countries need to develop national ICT policies that will serve as a framework for integrating ICTs at all levels of society. In the absence of that, different actors often engage in various actions for the same beneficiaries and in pursuit of the same objectives. That raises the need to define a national framework for the promotion and application of ICTs in the various production areas, particularly agricultural ones. It is for that reason that this study examined through qualitative methods (policy documents and semi-structured interviews) the national policy of Mali on the use of ICTs in agriculture. Data was analysed using the Qualitative Content Analysis (QCA) method with the aid of NVIVO 12 software. The results showed that the country has two policy documents that articulate the country’s strategy towards the use of ICTs in the agricultural sector, that is, the Agricultural Orientation Law and the National Strategy for the Development of the Digital Economy. Further examination revealed that that these two policy documents are neither appropriate nor coherent in today's Malian landscape. This has resulted in an underutilisation of digital tools by agricultural extension officers which led to the low agricultural productivity in the country. This study recommended therefore the recasting of both documents to take into account the reported observations</p> Macire Kante Patrick Ndayizigamiye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 16 100 117 10.15353/joci.v16i0.3489 Digital Justice <p class="RESUMEN">As technology use permeates many parts of society there are still groups where the penetration of technology is low: adults with little exposure to technology during their traditional learning years, users from lower SES, lower education levels, resulting in a digital divide between the digital haves and have-nots.&nbsp; This paper presents a community-based, mixed methods research project that endeavored to study the phenomenon of digital divide through a set of theoretical frameworks: Rawls’ principles of justice as fairness provided the overall social justice umbrella, Sen’s capability approach grounded the study in the specificities of learners’ lives and acknowledged learner diversity, and Horton’s cultural education, Freire’s critical consciousness, and Eubanks’ critical technology education provided the pedagogical lens to understand the importance of the critical learning process in digital education.&nbsp; The findings from the study support the concept of situated or contextual technology that seeks to increase the benefits of technology for adult learners while providing them the tools to manage complex digital environments through relatable instruction, user-centric design for technological tools and interfaces, and more robust government action in alleviating the digital divide through well-designed digital literacy programs.</p> Suguna Chundur ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 16 118 140 10.15353/joci.v16i0.3485 Lessons from the field: What researchers learned from evaluating ICT platforms for rural development and education <p>The field of information and communication technology for development is a field constantly changing as new ICT tools emerge and new knowledge gained by field researchers while performing their duties. The research problem: The field ICT field is littered with examples of failed projects because field researchers did not know the best way to carry out their work. The paper is about knowledge imparted by six monitoring and evaluation field researchers after working for almost eight years, from 2010 to 2018, in ICT platforms projects. These platforms were deployed across South Africa’s remote rural areas. The work followed interpretivism as its philosophy and was underpinned by qualitative research methods. Written projects reports, face-to-face interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data and also to triangulate the findings. The participatory evaluation formed the basis for the complete understanding of the finding. (i) Planning; (ii) Deployment; and iii) Usage were found to be critical elements for a successful implementation of ICT platform. Although well planned, numerous lessons were still learned for the benefit of future projects.</p> Thato Emmanuel Foko Nare Joyce Mahwai Charles Acheson Phiri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 16 141 153 10.15353/joci.v16i0.3470