Journal of Integrative Research & Reflection 2019-10-07T15:17:20-04:00 Editorial Board Open Journal Systems <p>This website is used for the review process of the JIRR. For more information visit</p> December 15th: Poetry as an Integrative Outlet 2019-09-23T21:59:03-04:00 Gillian Margaret Belcher <p>This poem is about receiving abusive behaviour and feeling as though it has now become a part of you that cannot be "washed" away. The reflection aims to explain how the act of writing poetry in response to difficult life events like the one addressed within this piece demonstrates how a particular way of knowing (how to write poetry) can act as a release or outlet for another internal way of knowing (lived experience). It reflects the benefit of integrating different types of knowledge within a singular mind rather than only focusing on positive outcomes that arise from combining knowledge present in two separate entities. Combing knowledge from various academic disciplines is important to enhance research and understanding within different fields of study. However, it is important to recognize the benefit of combining lived experience with an artistic outlet. It can allow for improved mental health and emotional connection among human beings which I believe is just as important as advancing knowledge within academic fields.&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-23T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Shedding Light on Colorism: How the Colonial Fabrication of Colorism Impacts the Lives of African American Women 2019-09-23T21:37:51-04:00 Adeola Egbeyemi <p>It is fascinating that the phenomenon of colorism, with such large scale and profound individual impact, can remain in the infancy of sociological study. Some African Americans insist that delving into the issue of colorism is a “distraction” and that we cannot overcome internalized racism until we defeat outward racism. I maintain that the battles are the same, and the impacts of both must be analyzed, but colorism—the lesser understood—requires its own attention. Colorism, notably among women, cannot begin to be resolved until both marginalized and non-marginalized people fully understand its creation leading to its current impact. Various papers and novels written with both the academic background and research and lived perspective as a dark-skinned black woman will be consulted. The research paper will move from the analysis of the historical context of colonialism and colorism against dark-skinned black women to unpacking colorisms many impacts and implications derived from this colonial construction to its effects within personal, private life. Thus, in my research paper, I will investigate how the colonial legacy of colorism impacts the lives of African American woman in the present day.</p> 2019-06-23T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Artificial Mental Representation and Creative Pursuit 2019-09-23T21:32:48-04:00 Kuil Schoneveld <p>This article first situates the notion of mental representation among the views of Franz Brentano and Daniel Dennett. It then discusses the accounts of creativity of Paul Thagard and Margaret Boden. This is then formally developed with the work of Geraint Wiggins and merged with contemporary work on mental representation in neural networks. Using Paul Smolensky's discussion of symbolic layering, we are then led to the conclusion that artificial neural networks can implement mental representations in creative activities.</p> 2019-06-23T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Silencing of LGBTQ Older Adults' Identities through Ageing in Long-Term Care 2019-09-23T21:47:54-04:00 Shauna Vanessa Wallace <p>This paper outlines how LGBTQ seniors often experience discrimination, prejudicial treatment, and often are forced to 'return to the closet' through the ageing process.</p> 2019-06-23T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Governmentality: A Theoretical Evaluation of Supervised Injection Sites and Consequent Police Practices 2019-09-23T21:45:34-04:00 Benjamin Daniel Scher <p>This essay looks to present governmentality as a theoretical framework through which to evaluate supervised injection sites (SIS) as a ‘political technology’ and police as extensions of this ‘technology’. Firstly, I will discuss how SIS arose under discourses of ‘public health’ and ‘harm reduction’ to fit varying political ideologies as a technology to cleanse public spaces of ‘disorderly’ drug use, thus safeguarding the urban environment as an attractive, civil and commercial space. Despite saving lives and meeting the unique needs of injection drug users, SIS can be understood as spaces of exclusion, immediately linking people to a marginalised population. Secondly, I will present the ways in which SIS can be contextualized as a powerful tool of surveillance and discipline, imposing the ‘responsibilization’ of individuals’ drug use and lifestyle habits, construing drug users as requiring surveillance and discipline to successfully conform to certain ‘acceptable’ behavioural traits. Lastly, once again through the lens of governmentality, I will demonstrate that police practises ironically work in opposition to the aim of SIS as a technology of control as they often deter drug users from frequenting SIS. Although governmentality can be philosophically conceptualized as an infringement on human freedom, in this instance, police practises need to be evaluated to increase their role in promoting SIS use. In light of the national health crisis in Canada, pertaining to injection drug use, if government control, surveillance and discipline results in the saving of thousands of lives, then in this occasion it is useful and necessary.</p> 2019-06-23T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Confronting the Obvious: An Epistemological Examination of the Evidence Informing Evidence-Based Medicine 2019-09-23T21:39:46-04:00 Dinesh Moro <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-23T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A White, Jewish, Rap-Infused Desire for Blackness: David Burd's Lil Dicky 2019-09-23T21:49:46-04:00 Ethan Sabourin <p>Known by his moniker Lil' Dicky, David Burd has been making rap music with an exceedingly Jewish twist for several years. This paper examines the Jewish and racial implications, and especially the intersections between the two, in Burd's lyrics and videos. Using James Baldwin's commentary on the Jewish-American condition in "On Being 'White' and Other Lies" as a starting point, I consider how Burd utilizes Jewish identity markers as a stand-in for Blackness in order to give his rap a unique ethnic position. Through three of his songs, I analyze the ways that Burd's relationship with race has evolved, culminating in his 2018 single "Freaky Friday" where Lil' Dicky and Chris Brown 'switch bodies'. In this song Dicky is able to say the N-word by having been placed by Burd into a Black body. Burd's music reflects a piece of contemporary, White, Male, Jewish consciousness and has implications for those who see themselves reflected in it.</p> 2019-06-23T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Alone and Anxious: Addiction to Work as an Adaptation to Postmodern Dislocation 2019-09-23T21:35:26-04:00 Anna Buhrmann <p>The majority of Canadians work upwards of forty-five hours a week, and nearly a third of Canadians identify themselves as addicted to work (Duxbury &amp; Higgins, 2013, p. 6; Keown, 2008, p. 28).&nbsp; This essay investigates the question: to what extent does the concept of addiction to work shed light on society’s anxieties?&nbsp;By examining values underpinning the free market economy and how they affect the daily rythym of human life, I argue that the pressures of postmodern life dislocate individuals within their social context.&nbsp; In a need to alleviate the anxieties stemming from this instability, individuals often work excessively to establish a sense of identity and security.&nbsp;An unbalanced amount of work, however, exacerbates not only a person’s fears but their compulsivity to work, multiplying the detrimental effects to their daily lives.&nbsp; In sum, because workaholism further distances us from social rootedness, it is crucial to question cultural acceptance of excessive focus and time spent on work.</p> 2019-06-23T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Values as the Bridge over Troubled Disciplinary Waters 2019-09-23T22:00:44-04:00 Ellen Taylor <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-23T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Using Locative Media to Enrich Spaces with Historical Artifacts 2019-10-07T15:17:20-04:00 Aidan Power <p>This piece is a prototype of an mobile Augmented Reality application that uses locative media to focus on the social interactions people have in space between each other and&nbsp; technology. It allows users to interact with digital objects in the built environment on the University of Waterloo campus through their mobile devices and envision the past of the spaces they enter, such as the contruction of well known buildings on campus or past student activities at their residences. It brings together the disciplines of history, fine arts, interface design and locative media studies.&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-23T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##