Journal of Integrative Research & Reflection 2020-09-24T13:10:53-04:00 Editorial Board Open Journal Systems <p>This website is used for the review process of the JIRR. For more information visit</p> Expression: A welcome from the Editor-in-Chief 2020-06-09T22:31:29-04:00 Hannah Anderson <p>Letter from the Editor-in-Chief.</p> 2020-06-09T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Integrative Research & Reflection Combatting the Illegal Antiquity Trade through Museums and Economic Reform 2020-09-24T13:10:52-04:00 Lindsay Williams <p>The issues surrounding the illegal antiquity trade in Jordan are extremely complex. Many Jordanian looters are unaware of the economic disparity they are experiencing on the the antiquity market, or simply feel they are not in a position to do anything about it.&nbsp;These looters are searching for a way to support themselves and their community, and are either unaware or do not care about the damage the illegal antiquity trade has on the archaeological record. One of the easiest ways to communicate these issues to the Jordanian public is utilizing museums. However, this is only the first step as looters must be able to find a viable alternative to the loss of looting as a source of income. In this paper I will provide an explanation on the harmful effects of looting, both for the archaeological record and for looters, and offer more in-depth solutions to combat the illegal antiquity trade in Jordan.</p> 2020-06-09T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Integrative Research & Reflection The Impact of Fast Fashion on Women 2020-09-24T13:10:51-04:00 Andrea Chang <p>The constructed gender roles and stereotypes of women position them to be uniquely impacted by the fast fashion industry because of the feminization of the fashion industry as a whole. They are disproportionately employed in the sweatshops of the garment industry, and also are mainly targeted as the consumers of fast fashion. However, because of the different levels of privilege that consumers and garment workers hold, although they are both affected by the fast fashion industry more so than their male counterparts, gender plays two different roles in these two different situations. Ultimately, many modern fast fashion critiques take a neoliberal stance in putting the responsibility on these young fast fashion consuming women to stop the fast fashion industry. However, alternate literature suggests that other actors have immense responsibility that is often overlooked. Thus, although these relatively privileged young women do have some responsibility in the horrors of the fast fashion industry, the feminization of responsibility for the practices of the industry are unfair. When a highly feminized industry like the fast fashion one becomes problematic, the responsibility for positive change is also placed upon females. The switch to ethical and sustainable fashion as the primary, and only, type of clothing to purchase is imperative. However, this switch should not only be the consumers’ burden, but rather that of the fashion industry as a whole.</p> 2020-06-09T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Integrative Research & Reflection Marxist Commodity Fetishization Encoded In Illusory Environmental Policy 2020-09-24T13:10:52-04:00 Sarun Balaranjan <p>The realm of environmental policy is riddled with issues with regards to method of approach and execution. This contemporary form of environmental policy is demystified through the utilization of a Marxist framework. In particular, the concept of commodity fetishism can be used to illustrate the manner in which modern environmental policy fetters the Global South to the economic survival of the Global North.&nbsp;</p> 2020-06-09T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Integrative Research & Reflection The Sustainability Crisis of Deathstyles 2020-09-24T13:10:52-04:00 Adan Amer <p>This paper will focus on the sustainability crisis in the funeral industry, with a particular look at conventional forms of funeral style like burial and cremation. Burials and cremations pose a threat to land scarcity and natural resource pollution. This is especially the case for Mountain View Cemetery in Vancouver, BC. In response to these crises, newer "sustainable" deathstyles have arisen, but they do not come without their own risks. This paper assesses the risks of conventional forms of funeral styles alongside their sustainable counterparts and their inclusion in the current regulatory policies of Ontario. A third section will focus on the social and cultural barriers that resist the just transitions to unconventional deathstyles. The final section includes recommendations to expand current legislation to accommodate the newer forms of disposal and minimize their associated risks, as well as additional consumer rights procedures to address the social barriers that impede the adoption of these alternatives.</p> 2020-06-09T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Integrative Research & Reflection The Letting Die of the South Asian Body: a Foucauldian Analysis of White Hegemony in Western Cardiovascular Medicine 2020-09-24T13:10:53-04:00 Rishi Bansal <p>Cardiovascular disease is the second leading cause of death in Canada and disproportionately affects those of South Asian ancestry. Anecdotally, stories of missed signs and emergency bypass surgeries are abound; empirically, medical research has identified a series of distinct risk factors for South Asian individuals. However, these factors are typically unrecognized by healthcare workers who are typically trained to use recommendations that are founded research done using Caucasian participants. The consequence of this omission is the normalization of the Caucasian body as 'the body' in medicine through disciplinary and regulatory mechanisms, and the 'letting die' of the South Asian body as a result. In taking a Foucauldian approach to this issue, this essay first maps the empirical evidence for the heightened CVD risk in South Asians, namely their predisposition to developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia, among other factors. Disciplinary mechanisms to enforce social cohesion discount these differences as exceptions, and attempt to rehabilitate the South Asian body towards the Caucasian norm. These actions are often subconscious, but result in real actions like spending less time with South Asian patients, misuse of assessment metrics, and lower cardiac rehabilitation referral rates. On a population level, research funding is rarely given to studies investigating disease in particular ethnic groups. Hence, clinical practice guidelines must rely on incomplete data to create population-level recommendations. These guidelines act as if they apply to all individuals, but are in fact partisan; thus, the biopolitical control of populations is made apparent through the racist undertones that thrum beneath the veneer of an equal society.&nbsp; Ultimately, this essay serves a counterhistorical function, and demands recognition of the South Asian body in the medical literature. The current medical regime routinely discounts populations who exist outside the norm. Future research and acknowledgement of these groups is necessary to ensure equitable treatment of all patients, regardless of their background.</p> 2020-06-09T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Integrative Research & Reflection “Batavia”: An Analysis on the Pedagogical Possibilities and Limitations of Virtual Reality Art 2020-09-24T13:10:52-04:00 Anand Sergeant <p>Publicly displayed art has long been an important mechanism for public pedagogy, historical representation, and critical thought. Thus, as art-creation technologies evolve enabling public artistic representations to change forms, it is important to critically examine the pedagogical and social implications of these novel art technologies. In this paper, I will analyze the pedagogical possibilities and the potential socio-political implications of an increasingly popular form of modern art representation: Virtual Reality (VR) art. Specifically, I argue that&nbsp;while the immersive and engaging form of VR technologies may offer some interesting possibilities as an educational practice for history through art, if they are not used properly, VR-art technologies may serve to propagate colonial narratives and inhibit a critical lens on historical events. Going forward, then, the ways in which novel artistic technologies are put into practice must be more critically examined and critiqued before they are launched into the public sphere.&nbsp;</p> 2020-06-09T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Integrative Research & Reflection How Restorative Justice Practices Create Safer More Caring School Communities 2020-09-24T13:10:51-04:00 Sage Streight <p>This paper looks at the traditionally retributive paradigm that is used in Western educational systems to control misbehaviour, issues of injustice, and violence in schools. The paper first talks about the ineffectiveness of this paradigm in creating communities of care and safer schools. The paper then offers that restorative justice (RJ) practices are more effective at creating communities of care and making schools safer. In fact, many schools in North America have been recognizing this and thus implementing RJ practices. The paper looks in depth as to what RJ is and how it is relevant to and works within the school context. This is done to show that RJ changes how individuals view harm. The traditional retributive paradigm views harm as an act of injustice against the state/law, whereas RJ views harm as harm against human beings. This means that RJ fosters understanding, accountability, empathy, connection, and learning positive reconciliation skills that can both be reactive and preventive ways to address harm in schools. Through all these things RJ looks to address the root causes of harm and attend to unmet needs that result from a specific harmful action.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; These findings are important in the paper as they provide an understanding as to why RJ is then relevant in schools. The paper goes on to argue that RJ is relevant in schools because schools are tasked with socializing children, provide behaviour management, and are currently places where violence frequently occurs. These three factors are extremely important in shaping how individuals and communities operate. Because of this, RJ is argued to be necessary and relevant in order to ensure positive and constructive measures. Next, the paper looks at what circles are and how using circles as an RJ practice in schools can create constructive dialogue that leads to understanding that can reduce incidents of harm and injustice and help to develop communities of care. A study by Ortega, Lyubansky, Nettles, &amp; Espelage (2016) is presented to support these findings.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Furthermore, the paper presents how circles could realistically and effectively be implemented in schools according to Braithwaite (2001). Circles need to be implemented on a school wide level, accessible to everyone, and with the hope that they become an everyday practice for individuals to use to resolve issues of harm and injustice. The paper concludes by reiterating that using circles as an RJ practice creates broader participation in schools and fosters a collective value and stake in what happens within a school. This is done through the intentional dialogue of circles, which is proven to foster community, understanding, and needs being met. Ultimately, this makes schools operate in a more responsible way where individuals look out for how their actions are affecting those around them, ultimately making them more conscious citizens and the school a safer place.</p> 2020-06-09T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Integrative Research & Reflection