Trends in Factor Price Elasticities Adding Energy to Capital and Labor in the US Economy
This paper estimates trends in factor price elasticities adding energy Btu input to fixed capital assets and the labor force in annual US data from 1949 to 2013. Second order effects improve estimates of the production function in log differences. The unrestricted estimates test for concavity and constant returns to scale. Adding energy input reduces the apparent productivity of labor and reveals strong capital-labor factor price elasticities with pronounced trends. Energy and labor trend to become weak complements. These trends offer insight into recent economic history and keys to predicting the future as well.
The Review of Economic Analysis is committed to the open exchange of ideas and information.
Unlike traditional print journals which require the author to relinquish copyright to the publisher, The Review of Economic Analysis requires that authors release their work under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial license. This license allows anyone to copy, distribute and transmit the work provided the use is non-commercial and appropriate attribution is given.
A 'human-readable' summary of the licence is here and the full legal text is here.