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Time-Series Causality with Missing Data


Over the past years, researchers have proposed various methods to discover causal relationships among time-series data as well as algorithms to fill in missing entries in time-series data. Little to no work has been done in combining the two strategies for the purpose of learning causal relationships using unevenly sampled multivariate time-series data. In this paper, we examine how the causal parameters learnt from unevenly sampled data (with missing entries) deviates from the parameters learnt using the evenly sampled data (without missing entries). However, to obtain the causal relationship from a given time-series requires evenly sampled data, which suggests filling the missing data values before obtaining the causal parameters. Therefore, the proposed method is based on applying a Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model for missing data recovery, followed by several pairwise Granger causality equations in Vector Autoregssive form to fit the recovered data and obtain the causal parameters. Experimental results show that the causal parameters generated by using GPR data filling offers much lower RMSE than the dummy model (fill with last seen entry) under all missing values percentage, suggesting that GPR data filling can better preserve the causal relationships when compared with dummy data filling, thus should be considered when dealing with unevenly sampled time-series causality learning.